type1-vs-type2

DIABETES MELLITUS – Symptoms and Medications

By Dr. Sheetal, September 12, 2015

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body’s ability to use the energy found in food.

Normally, our body breaks down the sugars and carbohydrates we eat into a special sugar called glucose. Glucose fuels the cells in our body. But the cells need insulin, a hormone, in our blood in order to take in the glucose and use it for energy.

With diabetes either our body doesn’t make enough insulin or it can’t use the insulin. So our blood sugar rises which may lead to further complications if untreated, as high blood pressure, heart problems, kidney problems, eye problems etc.

DIABETTES+PROBLEMS

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes– is also called insulin-dependent diabetes which begins in childhood. Here pancreas doesn’t make insulin .

type1-vs-type2

Type 2 Diabetes– used to be called adult-onset diabetes, With Type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually produces some insulin. But either the amount produced is not enough for the body’s needs, or the body’s cells are resistant to it that is cant consume it. People who are obese at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Gestational Diabetes-Diabetes that’s triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. With gestational diabetes, risks to the unborn baby are even greater than risks to the mother.

The classic symptoms of  diabetes are weight loss, poly-urea (increased urination), polydipsea (increased thirst), Polyphagia (increased hunger).

Complications

  • Diabetes doubles the risk of heart disease
  • Diabetic nephropathy.
  • Diabetic neuropathy
  • Diabetic Retinopathy

Diagnosis-

Diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed by one of the following blood tests-

  1. Fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (126 mg/dl)
  2. plasma glucose- ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after food
  3. glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT%).

Management-

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure.

Management focuses on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar.

  1. Lifestyle

Diabetes management requires awareness. Know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall — and how to control these day-to-day factors.

Food

Healthy eating is a cornerstone of healthy living — with or without diabetes. But if you have diabetes, you need to know how foods affect your blood sugar levels. It’s not only the type of food you eat but also how much you eat and the combinations of food types you eat.

Learn about carbohydrate counting and portion sizes.  Carbohydrates are the foods that often have the biggest impact on your blood sugar levels.

Learn what portion size is appropriate for each type of food. Simplify your meal planning by writing down portions for the foods you eat often.

Make every meal well-balanced. As much as possible, plan for every meal to have a good mix of carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables, proteins, and fats. It’s especially important to pay attention to the types of carbohydrates you choose.

  • Coordinate your meals and medications.
  • Avoid sugar-sweetened beverages.Exercise

When you exercise, your muscles use sugar (glucose) for energy. Regular physical activity also helps your body use insulin more efficiently. It also helps to keep your weight in normal range.

insulin

  1. Medications

Medications used to treat diabetes do so by lowering blood sugar levels.

There are a number of different classes of anti-diabetic medications.

Some are available by mouth, such as metformin, while others are only available by injection like insulin

  1. Surgery

Pancreas transplant is occasionally considered for people with type 1 diabetes who have severe complications of their disease.
Dr. Vikram Patil
Associate Doctor, Slim Express

 

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